Jun 19, 2023

Principles of interior design

Anna Uborevich-Borovskaya


Interior design is an art and science of creating functional and aesthetically pleasing spaces. To achieve this, interior designers follow certain principles that guide their decision-making process. The following are some of the main principles of interior design.

Unity and harmony

Unity and harmony are the most fundamental principles of interior design. The elements of a space should be unified in such a way that they work together to create a cohesive and harmonious look. This can be achieved through the use of color, pattern, texture, and proportion.


Balance refers to the distribution of visual weight in a space. A well-balanced room is visually pleasing and comfortable to be in. There are three types of balance: symmetrical, asymmetrical, and radial.

Proportion and scale

Proportion and scale are crucial in interior design. Properly proportioned and scaled elements work together to create a sense of harmony and balance in a space.


Rhythm is achieved through the repetition of elements such as color, pattern, and texture. A well-designed space should have a natural flow that is visually appealing and comfortable.


Contrast is created when elements with opposing qualities, such as light and dark, are used in a space. Contrast adds visual interest and can make a space feel more dynamic.


Emphasis is the use of a focal point in a space. This could be a piece of furniture, an architectural feature, or a work of art. The focal point draws the eye and gives the space a sense of purpose.


The functionality of a space is perhaps the most important principle of interior design. A well-designed space should be both beautiful and functional. Every element in a space should serve a purpose and be easy to use.


In conclusion, the principles of interior design guide designers in creating functional, comfortable, and aesthetically pleasing spaces. By considering factors such as unity and harmony, balance, proportion and scale, rhythm, contrast, emphasis, and functionality, designers can create spaces that are both beautiful and practical.